8वां दक्षेस अध्यक्षों और सांसदों का सम्मेलन (कोलंबो) - सतत विकास एक चुनौती

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सम्मेलन में दक्षेस देशों के अध्यक्ष और प्रतिनिधि हिस्सा लेंगे। सम्मेलन में भारतीय संसदीय शिष्टमंडल का नेतृत्व लोकसभा अध्यक्ष सुमित्रा महाजन करेंगी।

सम्मेलन में दक्षेस देशों के अध्यक्ष और प्रतिनिधि हिस्सा लेंगे। सम्मेलन में भारतीय संसदीय शिष्टमंडल का नेतृत्व लोकसभा अध्यक्ष सुमित्रा महाजन करेंगी। सम्मेलन की मेजबानी श्रीलंका की संसद कर रही है।

सम्मेलन की कार्यसूची में सतत विकास के लिए 2030 एजेंडा के लक्ष्य प्राप्त करने हेतु मिलकर काम करने के लिए दक्षिण एशिया के सांसदों का मंच बनाने, डिजिटल युग में संसदीय राजनय और पारदर्शी संसद को बढ़ावा देना शामिल है।

अन्य विषयों में दक्षिण एशिया क्षेत्र में सांस्कृतिक और पुरातात्विक विरासत के संरक्षण में दक्षेस सांसदों की भूमिका, गरीबी से ऊपर उठने तथा अपने समुदायों के भविष्य को बेहतर बनाने में महिलाओं की सहायता करना, आतंकवाद रोकने के लिए युवाओं में हिंसा की प्रवृत्ति को दूर करना, मानव तस्करी, आधुनिक दासता और नशीली दवाओं की तस्करी रोकने के लिए युवाओं को सक्षम बनाना शामिल है।

Origin of the expression “sustainable development”

 In the 1970s, international organisations realized that we could no longer continue to develop as if the Earth had unlimited resources. In light of this observation, in 1980 the International Union for Conservation of Nature published a report entitled World Strategy for Conservation,in which the expression “sustainable development” appeared for the first time. In 1987 it appeared again, in a report published by the World Commission on Environment. Entitled Our Common Future, more widely known as the Brundtland Report, this work propelled “sustainable development” along with its definition into common usage.

What is the goal of sustainable development?

Sustainable development is aimed at ensuring quality of life to present and future generations. Quality of life is recognized as being able to live in healthy surroundings (the environmental dimension), with an adequate standard of living (the economic dimension) and a way of life that is physically, intellectually and morally satisfying (the social dimension).

Inevitably, our decisions and actions all have an impact on the environment, the economy and society. For example, when we decide to purchase quality products regionally or locally, we encourage economic development at the regional level and in our own community. At the same time, greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation of food and other commodities are thereby reduced.

This shows that it is important to anticipate the consequences of our actions so as to maximize their positive effects and minimize their negative effects. The goal is to be able to satisfy our needs and aspirations for development today, while letting future generations also meet their diverse development needs, with respect for the Earth’s resources.

Issues and Aims of sustainable development

Following the Rio conference of 1992, most countries undertook to draw up a national strategy for sustainable development. The implementation of these strategies has turned out to be tricky, because it must address very serious issues within economic and political contexts that are marked by strong inertia. The issues appear at every level and affect practically every area of national policy. The various approaches reflect different points of view, and in particular: more or less constrained free market practices, a desire to place people at the heart of the economy, the greater or lesser determination of the various countries in the world, and the balance between short, medium, long, and very long-term interests. Moreover, there is no denying that the interdependence of modern-day economies means that environmental problems must be dealt with on a worldwide level, which does not simplify the implementation of the necessary strategies, particularly because of differences in levels of development.

The aim of sustainable development is to define viable schemes combining the economic, social, and environmental aspects of human activity. These three areas must therefore be taken into consideration by communities, companies, and individuals. The ultimate goal of sustainable development is to find a coherent and long-lasting balance between these three aspects. In addition to these three main factors, there is a transverse consideration, which is essential to the implementation of policies and actions with regard to sustainable development: good governance. Governance consists in the procedures of the decision-making process. In matters of sustainable development, the consensus of all the participants in society is required in order to define objectives and implement them: private and public sector companies, associations, NGOs, unions, and citizens.

Sustainable development did not just appear out of thin air; it is the product of a set of transformations in which the exploitation of natural resources, the choice of type of investment, and orientation of technological and institutional modifications are in harmony with present and future needs. As has already been indicated, the aims of sustainable development must be considered by individuals, by companies, and on a planet-wide level.

Moreover, the concept of sustainable development is based on a set of requirements. It must allow the basic needs of present and future generations to be fulfilled with regard to demographic constraints, such as: access to water, education, health, employment, and the fight against hunger or malnutrition. Another aim of this type of development is to improve quality of life, which involves easier access to medical care, social services, culture, and therefore also social well-being. In addition, respect for rights and freedoms and the promotion of new forms of renewable energy such as wind, solar, and geothermal power, are important aspects of sustainable development. Sustainable development must allow the planet’s resources and condition to be protected for future generations and natural assets to be shared. The concept of sustainable development also involves narrowing the gaps between rich and poor countries, insofar as these gaps, if maintained or accentuated, could be the cause of violent conflict, which by its very nature leads to regression rather than development.

Questions asked from Sustanable Development Topics

1. What is not true about “The Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro 1992”?

I. The first global environment conference, the UN sought to help Governments rethink economic development and find ways to halt the destruction of 
irreplaceable natural resources and pollution of the planet.

II. The first global environment conference, the UN sought to help Governments rethink political development and find ways to halt the destruction of irreplaceable natural resources and pollution of the planet.

III. The second global environment conference, the UN sought to help Governments rethink environmental development and find ways to halt the destruction of irreplaceable natural resources and pollution of the planet.

Code:

(a) Only I

(b) Only II

(c) I, II, III

(d) All are incorrect

Ans (a)

2. What does mean “Agenda 21”?

(a) It’s an agreement between 20 developing countries of the world on climate change.

(b) It’s a free trade agreement between 7 developed countries of the world.

(c) Agenda 21 is a non-binding, voluntarily implemented action plan of the United Nations with regard to sustainable development.

(d) None of the above

Ans (C)

3. In the word “COP”, C stands for:

(a) Confederation

(b) Conference

(c) Community

(d) Climate

Ans (b)

4. Consider the following statement (s) related to Rio+20 ,1992

I. Securing renewed political commitment for inclusive development

II. Assessing the progress and implementation gaps in meeting previous commitments.

III. Addressing new and emerging challenges.

What is/ are not the objective of Rio+20, 1992 conference?

Code:

(a) Only I

(b) Only II

(c) Only I & II

(d) I, II, III

Ans (a)

5. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is an international environmental treaty, signed in 2001 and effective from:

(a) 2004

(b) 2005

(c) 2009

(d) 2010

Ans (a)

6. Which of the followings are the aims of the Basel Convention?

I. The reduction of hazardous waste generation and the promotion of environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, wherever the place of disposal;

II. The restriction of trans-boundary movements of hazardous wastes except where it is perceived to be in accordance with the principles of environmentally sound management.

III. A Regulatory system applying to cases where trans-boundary movements are permissible.

(a) Only I & II

(b) Only I & III

(c) Only II & III

(d) All of the above

Ans (d)

7. Which of the following statement/s is true about Basel convention?

I. It does not address the movement of radioactive waste.

II. It became effective from 5 May 1998.

III. It became effective from 5 May 1992.

IV. Basel is based in Switzerland.

Code :

(a) Only II, III, & IV

(b) I,III & IV

(c) Only I, II & IV

(d) Only I & IV

Ans (b)

8. Basel Convention is related to the:

(a) Trans-boundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal

(b) Ozone layer depletion

(c) Sustainable development

(d) Earth summit

Ans (a)

9. Since when Basel convention became effective?

(a) 1989

(b) 1998

(c) 1983

(d) 1992

Ans (d)

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